Walker County was established by the Alabama legislature on December 26, 1823 and was named for U.S. senator John Williams Walker, the first senator from Alabama. Some of the earliest towns and settlements in Walker County were Jasper, Eldridge, Oakman, Parrish, and Sipsey.
Jasper was first settled in 1815 and was named after Sgt. William Jasper, a Revolutionary War hero. Its first settler, E. D. Musgrove, donated land to the county for the establishment of the city of Jasper.
By the end of the nineteenth century, Jasper was flourishing due to booming coal and timber industries aided by the construction of new railroad lines. President Franklin Roosevelt visited the town in 1940 to attend a memorial service for his friend and supporter, William B. Bankhead, the longtime congressman and two-term Speaker of the House of Representatives who represented the local district.